Decentralized Objects with Martin Kleppman



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The Internet was designed as a decentralized system.
Theoretically, if Alice wants to send an email to Bob, she can set up an email client on her computer and send that email to Bob’s email server on his computer. In reality, very few people run their own email servers. We all send our emails to centralized services like Gmail, and connect to those centralized services using our own client—a browser on our laptop or a mobile application on our smart phone.
Gmail is popular because nobody wants to run their own email server—it’s too much work. With Gmail, our emails our centralized, but centralization comes with convenience.
Similar centralization happened with online payments.
If Alice wants to send $5 to Bob, she needs to go through centralized banking infrastructure. Alice tells her bank to send $5 from her bank account to Bob’s bank account. This is not how it works in the physical world. if Alice wants to pay cash to Bob, she doesn’t have to go and meet him at a physical bank. She just takes out a $5 bill from her wallet and hands it to him.
The invention of Bitcoin proved that digital wallets and peer-to-peer payments are possible. But running your own wallet is like running your own email server. It is inconvenient, and so we trade decentralization for convenience once again. We use services like Coinbase, where users buy and sell cryptocurrencies in a centralized provider.
There are people in the cryptocurrency community who hate the idea of Coinbase. These people keep their cryptocurrency spread out on their own hardware wallets. Some of these people also run their own email servers.
Are these people just adding unnecessary inconvenience to their lives for no reason? No. These are smart, successful people. They don’t like to waste time. So what are they doing running their own email servers?
Distributed systems theory teaches the risk of centralized computer systems. If you have a single server that all your communication has to be routed through, your computer network will stop functioning if that server dies.
Today, civilization is reliant on centralized computer systems. This is fundamentally dangerous. The 2008 financial crisis proved how risky it is to centralize our money in the hands of a few people. The Equifax breach proved how risky it is to centralize our identity in the hands of a few people.
What happens if Dropbox runs out of money and has to shut down? What happens if all of the data centers at Amazon Web Services get wiped simultaneously? What happens if Coinbase gets hacked and every user at Coinbase loses all their money?
We have seen centralized systems collapse. The people who are running their own email servers are not crazy. Even if Gmail disappears tomorrow, they will still have access to their emails. With the example of email, we see that deploying and managing a decentralized system is possible.
Decentralization is a desirable feature of computer systems. So how do we make more of our applications decentralized?
The cypherpunks were working for decades to make decentralized money a reality. Satoshi Nakamoto invented the blockchain, and we now have a computer science construct that enables decentralized money. The blockchain also enables many other decentralized applications.
By solving a specific problem, Satoshi came up with a general solution. This is how progress often happens in computer science. In order to fix a system, we create a new tool. That tool can be applied to other systems that we don’t anticipate.
The blockchain is a tool that solves one set of problems in distributed systems. Conflict-free replicated data types are another type of tool.
Conflict-free replicated data types (or CRDTs for short) are objects that can be mutated by multiple users at the same time without creating data corruption. The most common example of a conflict-free replicated data type is the shopping cart.
Let’s say Alice and Bob share an account on

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